Harvard Referencing Guide

Welcome to our Academic Referencing Guide. Wise Owl Research compiled this guide to help students understand the Harvard referencing system in the most simplest way possible. We begin the referencing guide with examples of how to cite a reference in the body of your assignment or dissertation. As you know, not giving credit to other author’s ideas used in your work is an academic offense. Therefore, it is important to adhere to the formal expectations of the Harvard referencing system

Ensure that you disclose the author’s name and year of publication

Students need to provide the name of the author when referring to a publication. This view has been supported by Merryweather (1986).

However, where you are mentioning a particular part of the work, and making direct or indirect reference to this, a page reference should be included: Merryweather (1994, pp.32-33) states that “when writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works”.

According to Merryweather (1986, pp.100-103), students should always endeavor to reference published research when addressing focal issues.

An indirect reference

During the 1930’s research undertaken in professional publishing (Merryweather, 1986) showed that…

If you refer to a piece of research without mentioning the author in the text then both the author’s name and publication year need to be placed at a relevant point within the sentence or at the end of the sentence in brackets

Always referencing other documents appears to be characteristic of presenting to an academic reader (Donohoe, 1999).

When referring to more than one author in a sentence, and they are referred to directly, they are both cited as follows:
Wilson (1958) and Tyson (1928) both suggest…

If more than one publication from the same author makes the same point and the publications were in different years, the references should be cited in chronological order (i.e. earliest first):

as suggested by Donohoe (2017; 2017) makes explicit that…

or indirectly:

clinical research (Donohoe, 2017; 2018) concluded…

If you use a source by a corporate organisation with no personal author then it is usually cited under the body that commissioned the work. This will apply to publications by associations, companies, government departments etc. such as Department of the Environment or Royal College of Nursing.
1st citation:

… major pioneering research in 2018 undertaken by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) it has been shown to…

2nd citation:

Interestingly, the RCN (2007) has contested…

The inclusion of direct page numbers of a reference will help readers locate your sources. This is useful when quotations or paraphrasing specific paragraphs is used:

Terry(1986, p.211) states “the UK does …”

or indirectly: It is said that the UK should (Terry, 1966, p.124)… Special note: exact page numbers are preceded with p. for a single page and pp. for a range of pages

It is common for an author to cite another in their own publication. If you have not read the original text then you must apply the following:

A direct in-text reference:

Research recently carried out in Kent by Phillips (1992 cited in Jones, 1999, p.111) finds … In the above example, Phillips is the work which you want to reference, but have not read directly for yourself. Jones is the secondary source, where you found the summary of Phillip’s work. An indirect in-text citation would be: (Phillips, 1992 cited in Jones, 1999, p.111) It is important to recognise that Jones may have taken Phillip’s ideas, and altered their original meaning. Therefore, if you choose to cite a secondary reference it is recommended that, where possible, you read the original source for yourself rather than rely on someone else’s interpretation of a work.

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When there are two or three authors they should all be noted in the text

Directly using an and

Davis and Taddle (2001) find…

Or indirectly

Recent research (Davis and Taddle, 2001) suggests that…

For two or three authors……..

In 1992, research undertaken in Chelsea (Deeves and Jenings, 1985) showed that…

Further research (Mentle, Smith and Diane, 1973) showed

Where two or three authors collaborate for a publication they should all be listed in the order in which their names appear in the original publication

In cases where there are four or more authors, we only list the first author should followed by “et al.” meaning “and others”:

Watson, et al. (1987) found that most…

or indirectly:

Previous research (Watson, et al., 1995) has found that most …

Place this at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence, putting the author’s name, publication date separated by a semi-colon

Where several publications from a number of authors are referenced, the references should be cited in chronological order (i.e. earliest first): Studies from the 1950s (Donovan, 1956; Peterson, 1958) demonstrated the…… More recently, researchers (Milestone, 1999; Russel, 2000; Samba, 2018) claim that..

If you are quoting several works published by the same author in the same year, they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter directly, with no space, after the year for each item: Earlier evidence from Hills (1996a) found that…but later research conducted again by Hills (1996b) confirms… When several publications in the same year are referred to on a single occasion, or an author has made the same point in several publications, they can be referred to by using lower case letters: Hills (1996a; 1996b) has mentioned on numerous occasions that …

If you cannot identify the author use ‘Anonymous’ or ‘Anon’ with the title of the work and date of publication. The title should be written in italics.

Business strategy (Anon., 1999)

The abbreviation n.d. is used to denote that no date is offered:

Chatham (n.d.) has claimed……

or indirectly:

Earlier research (Chatham, n.d.) suggested that……

When citing text taken from a website, you should identify the authorship of the text you are citing.

The author may be an organisation or company. You can determine this at the URL or web address. The date is often displayed under the title of the publication or post

A new study (Wise Owl Research, 2015) has highlighted…

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The Harvard Referencing List

This section of our referencing guide shows you how to list the publications that you have used as a source within your assignment or dissertation. Following these examples will ensure that you are compliant with the Harvard referencing style for end of paper reference lists. Do not forget, as part of our Editing & Improvement Service – our writers will actually formally reference your sources under the Harvard referencing system rules

For a book reference, the requires elements are:

Author, Initial(s)., Year. Title of book. Place of publication (Town or City, not a country): Publisher name.

Wilson, W., 2013. The Brexit Bible. London: Pearson.

For a 2nd edition book:

Bronson, W., 1993. Good bye Great Britain. 2nd ed. Walderslade: Aurum press Ltd.

When referencing multiple authors, all of the authors need to be listed as they appear in the document

Your referencing format should be:

Authors, initials., Year. Title of publication. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Blackfriars, L. Convent, H. and Coates, K., 1986. The World that we live in. 2nd ed. London: Penguin Books

Referencing E-books that are freely available online:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by Available at: e-book source and web URL [Accessed date].

Wilson, T. and Tyson, S. 2018. Dog behaviour. [e-book] Dartford: ABC publishers. Available at: Google Books

These formats are used for print articles and should be referenced as:

Author, initials., Year. Title of article. Full title of Journal, Volume number (Issue), Page number.

Brighton, H. 2003. Advertising Strategies: a beginner guide. Marketing Geeks, 13(3), p. 12.

Newspaper articles that are published online should be referenced in the following way:

Author or corporate author, year. Title of document or page. Name of newspaper, [type of medium] additional data information. Available at: [Access Date].

Watson, V., 2003. Exposed: Dairy Farmer Profits. Guardian Online, [online] 2 August. Available at: [Accessed 7 June 2015].

Where you are referring to an interview on TV or Youtube – the recommended format is:

Interviewee name, Initials., Year of Interview. Title of interview or name of programme) interviewed by ‘name’ (first name and surname). [type of medium/format] Name of channel, Date of transmission or upload, time of transmission.

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When referencing publications by a single author in the same year they need to be distinguished by applying a lower case letter after the year as seen below

Author, Initials, Year followed by a letter. Title of publication. Place: Publisher.

Goodfrey, B., 1996a. Opinions are great. Chatham: University of Kent

Goodfrey, B., 1996b. Opinions Developed. Chatham: University of Kent

For publications that have been translated – the reference needs to include details of the translator as seen below:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Translated from (language) by name of translator, initials first, then surname) Place of publication: Publisher.

Brown, N., 2005. Pale Moonlight. Translated from Spanish to English by P. Guterres. Calella. Saville Books.

The format for referencing PDF documents is:

Author, Year. Title of document. [type of medium] Place of publication (if available): Publisher. Followed by Available at: include web URL, where available [Accessed Date].

Barclays Bank, 2009. Earnings Report. [pdf] Barclays Bank. Available at: ,http://www.barclays.com/investors-relations/earnings-report.pdf> [Accessed 15 November 2017].

To reference newspaper articles the following format should be adopted

Author, Initials., Year. Title if article or column header. Full title of newspaper, Day and month before page numbers and column line.

Hagler, B. 1999. Black Monday Explained: An investor account. The Guardian, 1 Jan. p.23b.

(The page reference p.23b – the “23” indicates that the article is on the twenty third page of the newspaper, columns of print on a page are labelled left to right alphabetically. Therefore, b refers to the second column across the page from the left to right)

When citing a statement from an interview that you have conducted (a primary souorce) – direct permission should be sought from the person being referenced

In text citation should refer to the Appendix

In an interview (Appendix A) it was claimed that….

In the Appendix you will need to include details such as:

Interviewee’s name. year of Interview. Title of interview.Interviewed by ‘name’. [type of medium and/or format] Location and date of interview. Together with transcript.

References should adhere to the following format:

Author, initials., Year. Title of page. [Social media type] Day/month post written. Available from [Accesse Date].

Pedderooney, J. 2017. The decline of the leisure industry. [Linkedin] 3 September. Available at: [Accessed 3 January 2018].

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